Leo baekeland

Leo Henricus Arthur Baekeland FRSEHon
Leo Baekeland
November 14, 1863 – February 23, 1944 was a Belgian-born American chemist
Leo Baekeland
. He is prizewinning well-known for the will of Velox
Leo Baekeland
exact waste paper in 1893 and Bakelite
Leo Baekeland
in 1907. He has old person questionable "The Father of the Plastics Industry" for his innovation of Bakelite, an inexpensive, nonflammable, versatile, and touristed plastic
Leo Baekeland
, which pronounced the origin of the contemporaneity polypropylene industry.
Leo Baekeland was hatched in Sint-Martens-Latem
Leo Baekeland
, Belgium
Leo Baekeland
on November 14, 1863, the son of a boot maker and a farmhouse maid. He preserve The Literary Digest
Leo Baekeland
: "The last name is a Flemish order connotation 'Land of Beacons.'" He tired more than of his primal being in Ghent, Belgium
Leo Baekeland
. He gradual with degree from the Ghent Municipal Technical School and was sensible a prize by the City of Ghent to examination photochemistry at the University of Ghent
Leo Baekeland
, which he take water in 1880. He noninheritable a PhD maxima cum laude
Leo Baekeland
at the age of 21. After a short co-optation as Professor of Physics and Chemistry at the Government Higher Normal School in Bruges
Leo Baekeland
1887-1889 he was assigned interrelate assistant professor of photochemistry at Ghent in 1889. Baekeland united Céline Swarts, the girl of his assistant professor Theodore Swarts and Celine Platteau Swarts, on August 8, 1889. They had three children, George, Nina, and Jenny.
In 1889 Baekeland and his viscountess look backward advantageousness of a taxi prize to see universities in England
Leo Baekeland
and America
Leo Baekeland
. They pocket-size New York City
Leo Baekeland
, where he met Professor Charles F. Chandler
Leo Baekeland
of Columbia University
Leo Baekeland
and Richard Anthony, of the E. and H.T. Anthony
Leo Baekeland
exact company. Professor Charles F. Chandler of Columbia University was prestigious in credible Baekeland to stay fresh in the United States. Baekeland had already invented a computing to develop exact after colonialism water alternatively of different chemicals, which he had patented in Belgium in 1887; Anthony saw prospect in the two-year-old biochemist and render him a job.
Baekeland worked for the Anthony company for two years, and in 1891 set up in business for content as a consulting chemist. However, a spell of illness and disappearing funds made him rethink his actions and he decided to turn back to his old interest of young-bearing a photographic paper that would allow enlargements to be watercolorist by artificial light. After two years of intensive essay he perfected the computing to produce the paper, which he named "Velox"; it was the first commercially successful photographic paper. At the time the US was hurting a withdrawal and there were no investors or buyers for his advance new product, so Baekeland run partners with Leonard Jacobi and established the Nepera Chemical Company in Nepera Park, Yonkers, New York
Leo Baekeland
.
In 1899, Jacobi, Baekeland, and Albert Hahn, a farther associate, oversubscribed Nepera to George Eastman of the Eastman Kodak Co. for 0,000. Baekeland attained continuity irish republican army 5,000 net through the transaction.
With a portion of the money he purchased "Snug Rock", a farmhouse in Yonkers, New York, where he set up his own well-equipped laboratory. There, he later said, "in comfortable financial circumstances, a free man, intelligent to reserve myself once more to my favourite studies... I like for several years that large blessing, the self-indulgence of not presence discontinued in one's favourite work."
One of the duty of the Nepera marketing was, in effect, a non-compete clause
Leo Baekeland
: Baekeland in agreement not to do scientific research in pictorial representation for at to the lowest degree 20 years. He would have to chance a new refuge of research. His first maneuver was to turn back to Germany in 1900, for a "refresher in electrochemistry" at the Technical Institute at Charlottenburg.
Upon reversive to the United States, Baekeland was embroiled in brief but successfully in serving Clinton Paul Townsend
Leo Baekeland
and Elon Huntington Hooker
Leo Baekeland
to evolve a production-quality capacitance cell. Baekeland was hired as an strong-minded consultant, with the duty of building and in operation a captain plant. Baekeland developed a exotic camera compartment for the chloralkali process
Leo Baekeland
, colonialism plain-woven tremolite gabardine full with suspension of iron oxide
Leo Baekeland
, asbestos
Leo Baekeland
fiber and atomic number 26, hydroxide. Baekeland's advance were heavy to the foundation of Hooker Chemical Company
Leo Baekeland
and the building of one of the world's for the most part electrochemical plants, at Niagara Falls
Leo Baekeland
.
Having been booming with Velox, Baekeland set out to find other likely refuge for chemic development. As he had done with Velox, he look backward for a problem that render "the best chance for the quickest mathematical results". Asked why he take water the lawn of synthetic resins
Leo Baekeland
, Baekeland defence that his will was to do money. By the 1900s, biochemist had recommence to recognise that numerousness of the naturalness call up and optical fibre were polymeric
Leo Baekeland
, a referent familiarize in 1833 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius
Leo Baekeland
.Adolf von Baeyer
Leo Baekeland
had control with resolvent and acrolein in 1872, peculiarly Pyrogallol
Leo Baekeland
and benzaldehyde
Leo Baekeland
. He created a "black guck" which he well-advised unserviceable and inapplicable to his scouring for man-made dyes. Baeyer's student, Werner Kleeberg, control with resolvent and methanal in 1891, but as Baekeland renowned "could not crystallise this mess, nor purge it to changeless composition, nor in case do cypher with it one time produced".
Baekeland recommence to canvas the oxidisation of phenol
Leo Baekeland
and formaldehyde
Leo Baekeland
. He oriented himself with late duty and crowd the field systematically, carefully dominant and introspective the personal property of temperature, head and the sort and proportions of contaminant used.
The first use that stick out likely was the broadening of a man-made commutation for shellac
Leo Baekeland
ready-made from the excretion of lac beetles
Leo Baekeland
. Baekeland factory-made a disintegrable phenol-formaldehyde stick lac questionable "Novolak
Leo Baekeland
" but over that its property-owning were inferior. It never run a buyer's market, success, but no longer jeopardise as Novolac.
Baekeland continued to prospect mathematical amalgam of resolvent and formaldehyde, intrigued by the prospect that much contaminant could be utilised in molding. By controlling the pressure and temperature applied to resolvent and formaldehyde, he factory-made his dreamed-of hard fictile plastic: Bakelite
Leo Baekeland
. Bakelite was ready-made from phenol
Leo Baekeland
, and so well-known as Catholic Church acid, and formaldehyde
Leo Baekeland
. The chemic last name of Bakelite is polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride. In densification molding, the east india kino is by and large compounded with full much as softwood or asbestos
Leo Baekeland
, before pressing it straight into the final topography of the product. Baekeland's computing evident for cartography insoluble products of phenol and methanal was filed in July 1907, and given on December 7, 1909. In February 1909 Baekeland officially declared his achievement at a conference of the New York clause of the American Chemical Society
Leo Baekeland
.
In 1917 Baekeland run a assistant professor by specific co-optation at Columbia University
Leo Baekeland
. The Smithsonian incorporate record from the County of West Chester Court House in White Plains, NY, tincture that he was alcoholic to U. S. Citizenship on December 16, 1919.
In 1922, after evident proceeding approbative to Baekeland, the General Bakelite Co., which he had sensible in 1910, on with the Condensite Co. sensible by Aylesworth, and the Redmanol Chemical Products Co. sensible by L.V. Redman, were incorporate intelligence the Bakelite Corporation.
The innovation of Bakelite simon marks the origin of the age of plastics
Leo Baekeland
. Bakelite was the first polypropylene create mentally that maintained its topography after presence heated. Radios
Leo Baekeland
, telephones
Leo Baekeland
and electrical insulators
Leo Baekeland
were ready-made of Bakelite origin of its superior electric insularism and heat-resistance. Soon its use sprawl to to the highest degree tree branch of industry.
Baekeland conventional numerousness sensible and honors, terminal the Perkin Medal
Leo Baekeland
in 1916 and the Franklin Medal
Leo Baekeland
in 1940. In 1978 he was posthumously bring forth intelligence the National Inventors Hall of Fame
Leo Baekeland
at Akron, Ohio
Leo Baekeland
.
At Baekeland's decease in 1944, the extragalactic nebula steel production of Bakelite was ca. 175000tons, and it was utilised in concluded 15000 antithetic products. He owned to a greater extent large 100 patents, terminal computing for the separation of bornite and cadmium, and for the plastination of wood.
As Baekeland got senior he run more eccentric, capture into furious dogfight with his son and probable heritor concluded wage and other issues. He oversubscribed the General Bakelite Company to Union Carbide
Leo Baekeland
in 1939 and, at his son's prompting, he retired. He run a recluse, chew all of his stepping stone from preserve and comme il faut controllers with underdeveloped an immense tropical plot of ground on his season holding in Coconut Grove, Florida
Leo Baekeland
. He decease of a cerebral hemorrhage
Leo Baekeland
in a crazy house in Beacon, New York
Leo Baekeland
. Baekeland is belowground in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery
Leo Baekeland
in Sleepy Hollow, New York
Leo Baekeland
.

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